Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) Community

Here's a selection of information from patients & professionals to better understand Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD).

Here are some of the most frequently asked questions and their answers:

If you are a patient or carer with a question about living with FMD, about treatments, or other relevant information please write your question on the forum.

  • FMD by the numbers*:

    Migraine-like Headache—53 percent of patients
    Dizziness—28 percent of patients
    Tinnitus—30 percent of patients
    Extracranial Carotid Involvement—62 percent of patients
    Vertebral Artery Assessme...

  • What treatment is available for FMD?

    Angioplasty, stenting, and reconstructive vascular surgery all are used in managing the effects of the disease. Patients also may be prescribed blood pressure and/or antiplatelet medications. “Most...

  • How is FMD evaluated?

    Catheter-based angiography is the most accurate imaging method. Other less invasive imagining methods such as duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiogr...

  • What is the most common clinical presentation of FMD?

    Hypertension is the most common clinical presentation of FMD when patients’ renal arteries are affected. This hypertension often presents without other obvious causes and is resistant to control vi...

  • What type of FMD is most common?


    Most cases of FMD are of the medial fibroplasia type, which commonly is described as giving the affected artery a string of beads appearance upon angiogram. The next most common type of FMD is in...